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Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Paris, France

Multicenter investigation of coronary stenting to treat acute or threatened closure after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: clinical and angiographic outcomes

Author(s): George BS, Voorhees WD 3rd, Roubin GS, Fearnot NE, Pinkerton CA, et al.

Abstract

Objectives: This study reports on the initial experience with the Gianturco-Roubin flexible coronary stent. The immediate and 6-month efficacy of the device and the incidence of the complications of death, myocardial infarction, emergency coronary artery bypass surgery and recurrent ischemic events are presented.

Background: Abrupt or threatened vessel closure after coronary angioplasty is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery and in-hospital death. When dissection or prolapse of dilated plaque into the lumen is unresponsive to additional or prolonged balloon catheter inflation, coronary stenting offers a nonsurgical mechanical means to rapidly restore stable vessel geometry and adequate coronary blood flow.

Methods: From September 1988 through June 1991, 518 patients underwent attempted coronary stenting with the 20-mm long Gianturco-Roubin coronary stent for acute or threatened vessel closure after angioplasty. In 494 patients, one or more stents were deployed. Thirty-two percent of patients received stents for acute closure and 69% for threatened closure.

Results: Successful deployment was achieved in 95.4% of patients. Overall, stenting resulted in an immediate angiographic improvement in the diameter stenosis from 63 +/- 25% before stenting to 15 +/- 14% after stenting. Emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery was required in 4.3% (21 of 493 patients). The incidence of in-hospital myocardial infarction (Q wave and non-Q wave) was 5.5% (27 of 493 patients). At 6 months, myocardial infarction was infrequent, occurring in 1.6% (8 of 493 patients). The incidence of in-hospital death was 2.2% (11 of 493 patients). Late death occurred in 7 patients (1.4%) and 34 patients (6.9%) required later bypass graft surgery. Complications included blood loss, primarily from the arterial access site, and subacute thrombosis of the stented vessel in 43 patients (8.7%).

Conclusions: The early multicenter experience suggests that this stent is a useful adjunct to coronary angioplasty to prevent or minimize complications associated with flow-limiting coronary artery dissections previously correctable only by surgery. Although this study was not randomized, it demonstrated a high technical success rate and encouraging results with respect to the low incidence of emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery and myocardial infarction.

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