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Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Paris, France
 

Secondary prevention of coronary artery disease

Author(s): Hall SL, Lorenc T

Abstract

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. In patients who have had a myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure, secondary prevention of coronary artery disease by comprehensive risk factor modification reduces mortality, decreases subsequent cardiac events, and improves quality of life. Options for secondary prevention include medical therapy and surgical revascularization in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention. Medical therapy focuses on comprehensive risk factor modification. Therapeutic lifestyle changes (including weight management, physical activity, tobacco cessation, and dietary modification) improve cardiac risk factors and are universally recommended by evidence-based guidelines. Treatment of hypertension and dyslipidemia reduces morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for persons with diabetes mellitus generally encourage glucose control, but current evidence has not shown reductions in mortality with intensive glucose management. Aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta blockers reduce recurrent cardiac events in patients after myocardial infarction. Surgical revascularization by coronary artery bypass grafting is recommended for those with significant left main coronary artery stenosis, significant stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery, multivessel coronary disease, or disabling angina. Percutaneous coronary intervention may be considered in select patients with objective evidence of ischemia demonstrated by noninvasive testing.

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