Healthcare costs doubled when children had urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing bacteria

Author(s): Nieminen O, Korppi M, Helminen M



The impact of the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms has rarely been studied in children, including the healthcare costs of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria. We evaluated the effect of ESBL on UTI healthcare costs and risk factors for paediatric UTIs.


This retrospective case–control study covered 2005–2014 and focused on children below 16 years of age treated in a University hospital: 22 children with UTIs caused by ESBL-producing bacteria and 56 ESBL-negative UTI controls.


The median healthcare costs were 3929 Euros for the 22 ESBL patients and 1705 Euros for the 56 controls (p = 0.015). The mean and standard deviation length of hospital stay was 7.4 (5.9) days for the ESBL group and 3.6 (2.3) days for the controls (p = 0.007), and the figures for antibiotic treatment were 12.3 (5.5) days versus 5.8 (3.0) days (p < 0.001), respectively. The odd ratios for ESBL were underlying disease (6.63, p = 0.013), previous hospitalisation (6.07, p = 0.009) and antibiotic prophylaxis (5.20, p = 0.035).


Healthcare costs more than doubled when children had ESBL-related UTIs, mainly due to their increased length of stay. Effective oral antibiotics are urgently needed to treat paediatric infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria.

Similar Articles

Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: A meta-analysis

Author(s): Shaikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, Farrell MH

The changing epidemiology of serious bacterial infections in young infants

Author(s): Greenhow TL, Hung YY, Herz AM, Losada E, Pantell RH

Prevalence of urinary tract infection in childhood: A meta-analysis

Author(s): Sheikh N, Morone NE, Bost JE, Farerell MH

Does this child have urinary tract infection? JAMA 298:  2895-2904

Author(s): Shaikh N, Morone NE, Lopez J, Chianese J, Sangvai S, et al.

  Improving antibiotic prescribing for pediatric urinary tract infections in outpatient settings

Author(s): Matthew F. Daley, Sharisse M, Arnold R, Karen A, Glenn Liza M, et al.

The importance of gender stratified antibiotic resistance surveillance study

Author(s): den Heijer CD, Penders J, Donker GA, Bruggeman CA Bruggeman CA, et al.

Antibiotic resistance patterns of outpatient pediatric urinary tract infections

Author(s): Edlin RS, Shapiro DJ, Hersh AL, Copper HL