Physical activity and muscle-brain crosstalk

Author(s): Pedersen BK


Exercise can indirectly be sensed by the brain via adipose tissue (adiponectin) or the liver (fibroblast growth factor 21 and insulin-like growth factor 1).

Myokines mediate muscle–organ crosstalk to the liver, gut, pancreas, adipose tissue, bone, vascular bed, skin and brain.

Cathepsin B is an exercise-induced myokine required for exercise-induced improvement in memory and adult neurogenesis.

Exercise enhances neuronal gene expression of FNDC5, the protein product of which might stimulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus.

Serum levels of the myokine IL-6 increase with exercise, and this myokine might regulate central mechanisms for food intake.

Exercise increases muscular expression of kynurenine aminotransferases, which convert blood levels of neurotoxic kynurenine to the neuroprotective kynurenic acid, thereby reducing depression-like symptoms.

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