What Strategy do less proficient learners employ in listening comprehension?: A reappraisal of bottom-up and top-down processing

Author(s): Osada N

Abstract

Investigates the listening process of less proficient Japanese English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners. Focuses on whether they tend to rely on bottom-up or on top-down processing, on which opinions are divided among researchers. (Author/VWL)

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