Alveolar bone regeneration by transplantation of periodontal ligament stem cells and bone marrow stem cells in a canine peri-implant defect model: a pilot study

Author(s): Kim SH, Kim KH, Seo BM, Koo KT, Kim TI, et al.


Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and bone marrow SCs (BMSCs) on alveolar bone regeneration in a canine peri-implant defect model.

Methods: Four adult, male beagle dogs were used in this study. Autologous BMSCs from the iliac crests and PDLSCs from extracted teeth were cultured. Three months after extraction, BMSC- and PDLSC-loaded hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) (test groups) and cell-free HA/TCP (control group) were implanted in three rectangular, saddle-like peri-implant defects, respectively. The left side of the mandible was initially prepared, and after 8 weeks, the right side was also prepared. The animals were sacrificed after an 8-week healing period. Undecalcified ground sections were prepared. New bone formation and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) were measured histomorphometrically. BMSCs and PDLSCs were fluorescently labeled and traced.

Results: Alveolar bone regeneration in surgically created peri-implant saddle-like defects was more effective in test groups than the control group. The BMSC group had the highest new bone formation (34.99% and 40.17% at healing times of 8 and 16 weeks, respectively) followed by the PDLSC group (31.90% and 36.51%) and control group (23.13% and 28.36%), respectively. Test groups exhibited a significantly higher new bone formation than the control group at 8 weeks, but the same was true for only the BMSC group at 16 weeks (P <0.05). Fluorescently labeled cells were identified adjacent to HA/TCP carriers and, partly, near connective tissues and osteoids.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated bone regeneration to treat peri-implant defects.

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