Altered cerebrospinal fluid index of prealbumin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

Author(s): Zhang HL, Zhang XM, Mao XJ, Deng H, Li HF, et al.

Abstract

Objectives:Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are autoimmune diseases of the peripheral nervous system. A clinical hallmark of GBS and CIDP is the albumino-cytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Changes in the CSF levels of proteins other than albumin in patients with GBS and CIDP are not as well studied. If altered, aberrant levels of CSF proteins may render it possible to establish useful biomarkers for GBS and CIDP.

Materials and methods:Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the levels of prealbumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A4 in both CSF and plasma samples from 19 patients with GBS and eight with CIDP, 24 controls with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well as 20 patients with other non-inflammatory neurological disorders (OND).

Results:The levels of prealbumin in both the plasma and the CSF were elevated in patients with GBS and MS compared with the controls. The higher levels of fibrinogen were seen in the CSF of patients with GBS and CIDP, but not in the plasma. The levels of CSF prealbumin and fibrinogen, measured by the CSF index of these proteins, were lower in patients with GBS and that of fibrinogen in patients with CIDP compared with controls with OND. Haptoglobin levels in the CSF rather than in the plasma were higher in patients with GBS and CIDP than in controls. The CSF haptoglobin index was higher in patients with CIDP and MS, but not in those with GBS. No correlation was found between levels of CSF proteins and clinical parameters in patients with GBS and CIDP.

Conclusions:Our data provide preliminary evidence that GBS is associated with low CSF index levels of prealbumin and fibrinogen, but normal levels of haptoglobin, whereas CIDP is associated with normal CSF index levels of prealbumin, low fibrinogen, and high levels of haptoglobin. Further studies are needed to identify the underlying mechanisms behind these CSF protein alterations and to clarify whether prealbumin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin can serve as useful biomarkers for GBS and CIDP.

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