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Hepatobiliary dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis has been suggested on the basis of raised serum activity of alkaline phosphatase, 5-nucleotidase, lactic dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, but a specific pathological lesion has not been demonstrated and serum transaminases and bilirubin are almost invariably normal. This paper reports a series of studies designed to determine the tissues of origin of the enzymes and offers an alternative interpretation of the enzymological findings. The results suggest that only alkaline phosphatase originates from the liver, while lactic dehydrogenase and 5-nucleotidase originate from synovial fluid polymorphs and synovial lining cells, respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase may be induced by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 because it correlates with the acute phase response. Serum lactic dehydrogenase is an integrated measure of polymorph lysis in all joints and offers a marker of joint inflammation more specific than measures such as the ESR. Levels of serum 5-nucleotidase provide information about the activity of the synovium. Finally, because hepatic necrosis does not normally occur, the transaminases may be used to monitor drug toxicity.
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1977186
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