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Treatment response of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania aethiopica to cryotherapy and generic sodium stibogluconate from patients in Silti, Ethiopia

Author(s): Negera E, Gadisa E, Hussein J, Engers H, Kuru T, et al.

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ethiopia is caused mainly by Leishmania aethiopica. In this study, the response of L. aethiopica to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and liquid nitrogen in Silti has been investigated. Patients were divided into two groups by the treating physician and were treated with either liquid nitrogen or SSG. Punch biopsy samples were collected from 54 patients with mean age of 20.61 (± 9.87 SD) years for histological characterization. The histological spectrum found to be type-1, type-2, type-3 and type-4 were 37.0%, 3.7%, 37.0% and 22.2% respectively. One hundred and three patients with a mean age of 18.4 (± 11.7 SD) years were treated with liquid nitrogen. The mean duration of the lesions before the onset of treatment was 8.5 months (± 6.7 SD). Of the 103 patients 80.6% (83/103) were cured, 13.6% (14/103) were dropouts and 5.8% (6/103) did not respond. Twenty patients with a mean age of 19.55 (+1.64 SD) years were treated with Pentostam on conventional dose. Of the 20 patients 85.0% (17/20) were cured, 10.0% (2/20) were unresponsive and 5.0% (1/20) were dropouts. The per protocol cure rate for cryotherapy and Pentostam was 93.3% and 89.5% respectively. Hence, liquid nitrogen can be used as one of the treatment options especially in resource poor settings.

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