Author(s): Carr MC, Brunzell JD
Regional body fat distribution has an important influence on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Increased abdominal (visceral) fat accumulation is a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD), dyslipidemia, hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The recent emphasis on treatment of the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein, and increased small, dense low-density lipoprotein particle number) has compelled practitioners to consider lipid-lowering therapy in a greater number of their patients, as one in two individuals over age 50 has the metabolic syndrome. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome typically have normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and current lipid-lowering guidelines may underestimate their cardiovascular risk. Two subgroups of patients with the metabolic syndrome are at particularly high risk for premature CAD. One, individuals with type 2 diabetes, accounts for 20-30% of early cardiovascular disease. The second, familial combined hyperlipidemia, accounts for an additional 10-20% of premature CAD. Familial combined hyperlipidemia is characterized by the metabolic syndrome in addition to a disproportionate elevation of apolipoprotein B levels. The measurement of fasting glucose and apolipoprotein B, in addition to the fasting lipid profile, can help to estimate CAD risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome.
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15181030
Author(s): Selby JV, Ray GT, Zhang D, Colby CJ
Author(s): Sidorov J, Shull R, Tomcavage J, Girolami S, Lawton N, et al.
Author(s): Cutajar J
Author(s): Costa J, Borges M, David C, Vaz Carneiro A
Author(s): IDF Clinical Guidelines Task Force
Author(s): Lakka HM, Laaksonen DE, Lakka TA, Niskanen LK, Kumpusalo E, et al.
Author(s): Selby JV, Karter AJ, Ackerson LM, Ferrara A, Liu J
Author(s): The Mount Hood 4 Modeling Group
Author(s): Clark CM Jr, Snyder JW, Meek RL, Stutz LM, Parkin CG
Author(s): Marcantonio ER, Goldman L, Mangione CM, Ludwig LE, Muraca B, et al.
Author(s): Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, Matthews DR, Manley SE, et al.
Author(s): van Leiden HA, Dekker JM, Moll AC, Nijpels G, Heine RJ, et al.
Author(s): Stevens RJ, Kothari V, Adler AI, Stratton IM; United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group
Author(s): Serrano Rios M
Author(s): Adler AI, Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Stensel V, Forsberg RC, et al.
Author(s): Retnakaran R, Cull CA, Thorne KI, Adler AI, Holman RR
Author(s): Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, Yudkin JS, Matthews DR, et al.
Author(s): Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L, Elliott WJ, Epstein M, et al.
Author(s): Ravid M, Brosh D, Ravid-Safran D, Levy Z, Rachmani R
Author(s): Park JY, Kim HK, Chung YE, Kim SW, Hong SK, et al.
Author(s): Tuomilehto J, Rastenyte D, Birkenhäger WH, Thijs L, Antikainen R, et al.
Author(s): Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlöf B, Elmfeldt D, et al.
Author(s): Curb JD, Pressel SL, Cutler JA, Savage PJ, Applegate WB, et al.
Author(s): Anderson JW, Kendall CW, Jenkins DJ
Author(s): Metascreen Writing Committee, Bonadonna R, Cucinotta D, Fedele D, Riccardi G, et al.
Author(s): Costa LA, Canani LH, Lisbôa HR, Tres GS, Gross GL
Author(s): Handelsman Y, Jellinger PS
Author(s): Bonora E, Targher G, Formentini G, Calcaterra F, Lombardi S, et al.