Fat oxidation, body composition and insulin sensitivity in diabetic and normoglycaemic obese adults 5 years after weight loss

Author(s): Poynten AM, Markovic TP, Maclean EL, Furler SM, Freund J, et al.


Objective: To investigate whether normal glucose-tolerant and type II diabetic overweight adults differ in response to weight regain with regard to substrate oxidation and metabolic parameters.

Methods: A total of 15 overweight-obese subjects: seven normal glucose tolerant (NGT) and eight with type II diabetes (DM) were restudied 5 y after significant weight loss. Prediet, after 28 days calorie restriction and at 5 y, subjects were characterised for weight, height, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and lipid levels were measured and subjects underwent euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp (insulin 0.25 U/kg/h for 150 min). Indirect calorimetry was performed resting and in the final 30 min of the clamp. Dietary assessment was by 4-day diet-diary.

Results: Both NGT and DM groups regained weight at 5 y and were not different to prediet. Total body fat (%) and WHR were higher at 5 y compared to prediet in both groups. Fasting glucose was increased in NGT subjects at 5 y, and fasting insulin was higher in both groups at 5 y compared to prediet. Insulin sensitivity (GIR) was similar at 5 y compared to prediet, but at 5 y DM subjects were more insulin resistant than NGT subjects. At 5 y, both DM and NGT groups had significantly reduced basal fat oxidation and no significant suppression of fat oxidation with insulin. Clamp respiratory quotient levels at 5 y were significantly higher in NGT compared to DM subjects.

Conclusion: Reduced basal fat oxidation, and reduced variation in substrate oxidation in response to insulin develop with fat regain and fasting hyperinsulinaemia in both NGT and DM obese adults.

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