Author(s): Wolford JK, Vozarova de Courten B
Type 2 diabetes mellitus represents a multifactorial, heterogeneous group of disorders, which result from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically worldwide over the past several decades, a trend that has been heavily influenced by the relatively recent changes in diet and physical activity levels. There is also strong evidence supporting a genetic component to type 2 diabetes susceptibility and several genes underlying monogenic forms of diabetes have already been identified. However, common type 2 diabetes is likely to result from the contribution of many genes interacting with different environmental factors to produce wide variation in the clinical course of the disease. Not surprisingly, the etiologic complexity underlying type 2 diabetes has made identification of the contributing genes difficult. Current therapies in the management of type 2 diabetes include lifestyle intervention through diet modification and exercise, and oral or injected hypoglycemic agents; however, not all individuals with type 2 diabetes respond in the same way to these treatments. Because of variability in the clinical course of the disease and in the responsiveness to pharmacologic therapies, identification and characterization of the genetic variants underlying type 2 diabetes susceptibility will be important in the development of individualized treatment. Findings from linkage analyses, candidate gene studies, and animal models will be valuable in the identification of novel pathways involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and will augment our understanding of the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, which impact on type 2 diabetes etiology and pathogenesis. In addition, identification of genetic variants that determine differences in antidiabetic drug responsiveness will be useful in assessing a first-line pharmacologic therapy for diabetic patients.
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16026108
Author(s): Gerich JE
Author(s): Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, van Haeften TW
Author(s): Dey L, Attele AS, Yuan CS
Author(s): Chen L, Magliano DJ, Zimmet PZ
Author(s): International Diabetes Federation
Author(s): Harcourt BE, Penfold SA, Forbes JM
Author(s): Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H
Author(s): Shera AS, Jawad F, Maqsood A
Author(s): Tattersall RB, Fajans SS
Author(s): Shields BM, Hicks S, Shepherd MH, Colclough K, Hattersley AT, et al.
Author(s): Kanwal SF, Fazal S, Muhammad Ismail, Nighat Naureen
Author(s): Velho G, Robert JJ
Author(s): Ben Khelifa S, Barboura I, Dandana A, Ferchichi S, Miled A
Author(s): Pittman WB, Acton RT, Barger BO, Bell DS, Go RC, et al.
Author(s): Matejkova-Behanova M
Author(s): Nambam B, Aggarwal S, Jain A
Author(s): Gale EA
Author(s): Fourlanos S, Dotta F, Greenbaum CJ, Palmer JP, Rolandsson O, et al.
Author(s): Cervin C, Lyssenko V, Bakhtadze E, Lindholm E, Nilsson P, et al.
Author(s): Owen KR, McCarthy MI
Author(s): Doria A, Patti ME, Kahn CR
Author(s): Yang L, Zhou X, Luo Y, Sun X, Tang Y, et al.
Author(s): Wheeler E, Barroso I
Author(s): McCarthy MI, Zeggini E
Author(s): Saxena R, Saleheen D, Been LF, Garavito ML, Braun T, et al.
Author(s): Prokopenko I, McCarthy MI, Lindgren CM
Author(s): Sanghera DK, Blackett PR
Author(s): Sladek R, Rocheleau G, Rung J, Dina C, Shen L, et al.
Author(s): Diabetes Genetics Initiative of Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Lund University, and Novartis Institutes of BioMedical Research, Saxena R, Voight BF, et al.
Author(s): Scott LJ, Mohlke KL, Bonnycastle LL, Willer CJ, Li Y, et al.
Author(s): Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium
Author(s): Steinthorsdottir V, Thorleifsson G, Reynisdottir I, Benediktsson R, Jonsdottir T, et al.
Author(s): Omori S, Tanaka Y, Takahashi A, Hirose H, Kashiwagi A, et al.
Author(s): Zeggini E, Scott LJ, Saxena R, Voight BF, Marchini JL, et al.
Author(s): Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, et al.
Author(s): Elbein SC, Das SK, Hallman DM, Hanis CL, Hasstedt SJ
Author(s): Ruchat SM, Elks CE, Loos RJ, Vohl MC, Weisnagel SJ, et al.
Author(s): Voight BF, Scott LJ, Steinthorsdottir V, Morris AP, Dina C, et al.
Author(s): Been LF, Ralhan S, Wander GS, Mehra NK, Singh J, et al.
Author(s): Rees SD, Hydrie MZ, Shera AS, Kumar S, O'Hare JP, et al.
Author(s): Saxena R, Elbers CC, Guo Y, Peter I, Gaunt TR, et al.
Author(s): Morris AP, Voight BF, Teslovich TM, Ferreira T, Segrè AV, et al.
Author(s): Parra EJ, Below JE, Krithika S, Valladares A, Barta JL, et al.
Author(s): Tsai FJ, Yang CF, Chen CC, Chuang LM, Lu CH, et al.
Author(s): Xiang K, Wang Y, Zheng T, Jia W, Li J, et al.
Author(s): Das SK, Hasstedt SJ, Zhang Z, Elbein SC
Author(s): Love-Gregory LD, Wasson J, Ma J, Jin CH, Glaser B, et al.
Author(s): Silander K, Mohlke KL, Scott LJ, Peck EC, Hollstein P, et al.
Author(s): Helgason A, Pálsson S, Thorleifsson G, Grant SF, Emilsson V, et al.
Author(s): van Vliet-Ostaptchouk JV, Shiri-Sverdlov R, Zhernakova A, Strengman E, van Haeften TW, et al.
Author(s): van Hoek M, Dehghan A, Witteman JC, van Duijn CM, Uitterlinden AG, et al.
Author(s): Marquezine GF, Pereira AC, Sousa AG, Mill JG, Hueb WA, et al.
Author(s): Maeda S, Tsukada S, Kanazawa A, Sekine A, Tsunoda T, et al.
Author(s): Horikawa Y, Oda N, Cox NJ, Li X, Orho-Melander M, et al.
Author(s): Cho YM, Kim TH, Lim S, Choi SH, Shin HD, et al.
Author(s): Hu FB, Meigs JB, Li TY, Rifai N, Manson JE
Author(s): Moller DE
Author(s): Reitman ML, Schadt EE
Author(s): Holstein A, Seeringer A, Kovacs P
Author(s): Shu Y, Sheardown SA, Brown C, Owen RP, Zhang S, et al.
Author(s): Becker ML, Visser LE, van Schaik RH, Hofman A, Uitterlinden AG, et al.
Author(s): Avery P, Mousa SS, Mousa SA
Author(s): Aquilante CL
Author(s): Distefano JK, Watanabe RM
Author(s): Lebovitz HE
Author(s): Schroner Z, Javorsky M, Kozarova M, Tkac I