Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2012

Author(s): V. Basevi



D iabetes mellitus is a chronic illness that requires continuing medical care and ongoing patient self-management education and support to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. Diabetes care is complex and requires that many issues, beyond glycemic control, be addressed. A large body of evidence exists that supports a range of interventions to improve diabetes outcomes. These standards of care are intended to provide clinicians, patients, researchers, payers, and other interested individuals with the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals, and tools to evaluate the quality of care. While individual preferences, comorbidities, and other patient factors may require modification of goals, targets that are desirable for most patients with diabetes are provided. Specifically titled sections of the standards address children with diabetes, pregnant women, and people with prediabetes. These standards are not intended to preclude clinical judgment or more extensive evaluation and management of the patient by other specialists as needed. For more detailed information about management of diabetes, refer to references 1–3. The recommendations included are screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic actions that are known or believed to favorably affect health outcomes of patients with diabetes. A large number of these interventions have been shown to be cost-effective (4). A grading system (Table 1), developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) andmodeled after existingmethods, was utilized to clarify and codify the evidence that forms the basis for the recommendations. The level of evidence that supports each recommendation is listed after each recommendation using the letters A, B, C, or E. These standards of care are revised annually by the ADA’s multidisciplinary Professional Practice Committee, incorporating new evidence. For the current revision, committee members systematically searched Medline for human studies related to each subsection and published since 1 January 2010. Recommendations (bulleted at the beginning of each subsection and also listed in the “Executive Summary: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd2012”) were revised based on new evidence or, in some cases, to clarify the prior recommendation or match the strength of the wording to the strength of the evidence. A table linking the changes in recommendations to new evidence can be reviewed at http:// aspx. Subsequently, as is the case for all Position Statements, the standards of care were reviewed and approved by the ExecutiveCommittee of ADA’s Board ofDirectors, which includes health care professionals, scientists, and lay people. Feedback from the larger clinical community was valuable for the 2012 revision of the standards. Readers who wish to comment on the “Standards of Medical Care in Diabetesd2012” are invited to do so at CPR_Search.aspx. Members of the Professional Practice Committee disclose all potential financial conflicts of interest with industry. These disclosures were discussed at the onset of the standards revisionmeeting. Members of the committee, their employer, and their disclosed conflicts of interest are listed in the “Professional PracticeCommitteeMembers” table (see pg. S109). The AmericanDiabetes Association funds development of the standards and all its position statements out of its general revenues and does not utilize industry support for these purposes. 

Similar Articles

Less hypoglycemia with insulin glargine in intensive insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes

Author(s): Ratner RE, Hirsch IB, Neifing JL, Garg SK, Mecca TE, et al.

Insulin analogues and their potential in the management of diabetes mellitus

Author(s): Bolli GB, Di Marchi RD, Park GD, Pramming S, Koivisto VA

Meta-analysis of the effect of insulin lispro on severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

Author(s): Brunelle BL, Llewelyn J, Anderson JH Jr, Gale EA, Koivisto VA

Prevention of perinatal morbidity by tight metabolic control in gestational diabetes mellitus

Author(s): Drexel H, Bichler A, Sailer S, Breier C, Lisch HJ, et al.

Correlations of receptor binding and metabolic and mitogenic potencies of insulin analogs designed for clinical use

Author(s): Kurtzhals P, Schäffer L, Sørensen A, Kristensen C, Jonassen I, et al.

Use of insulin glargine during pregnancy in a type 1 diabetic woman

Author(s): Devlin JT, Hothersall L, Wilkis JL

Insulin glargine use during pregnancy

Author(s): Pantalone KM, Faiman C, Olansky L

Perinatal outcomes associated with the use of glargine during pregnancy

Author(s): Di Cianni G, Torlone E, Lencioni C, Bonomo M, Di Benedetto A, et al.

Perinatal outcomes in pregnancies managed with antenatal insulin glargine

Author(s): Egerman RS, Ramsey RD, Kao LW, Bringman JJ, Haerian H, et al.