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Contamination indices and heavy metal concentrations in urban soil of Ibadan metropolis, southwestern Nigeria

Author(s): Odewande AA, Abimbola AF

Abstract

Abstract

An assessment was conducted on soils of Ibadan metropolis using geochemical approach in order to establish the concentration of heavy metals and develop geoaccumulation index maps. Petrographic studies and X-ray diffractograms showed that soils of Ibadan were derived from the weathering of the bedrocks. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were found to be greater in soils more than the background. Positive correlation occurred between Cu, Pb, and Zn indicated a common anthropogenic source in the soil while Mn, Cr, and Ni were found to be naturally enriched. The geoaccumulation index maps revealed significant enrichment factor (Ef 20) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) beyond class four (heavily contaminated) for Cu, Pb, and Zn in densely populated and industrial areas, whereas Cd is enriched in sparsely populated areas, agricultural areas and a few spots in densely populated areas.

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