Innate and adaptive immunity for the pathobiology of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Stone DK, Reynolds AD, Mosley RL, Gendelman HE

Abstract

Innate and adaptive immunity affect the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, activation of microglia influences degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Cell-to-cell interactions and immune regulation critical for neuronal homeostasis also influence immune responses. The links between T cell immunity and nigrostriatal degeneration are supported by laboratory, animal model, and human pathologic investigations. Immune-associated biomarkers in spinal fluids and brain tissue of patients with idiopathic or familial forms of PD provide means to improve diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. Relationships between oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune-mediated cell death pathways are examined in this review as they are linked to PD pathogenesis. Harnessing the immune system by drugs or by vaccination remain promising future therapeutic options.

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