Quantitation of perivascular monocytes and macrophages around cerebral blood vessels of hypertensive and aged rats

Author(s): Liu Y, Jacobowitz DM, Barone F, McCarron R, Spatz M, et al.


The numbers of monocytes and macrophages in the walls of cerebral blood vessels were counted on perfusion-fixed frozen brain sections (16 microns) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR (SHR-SP), normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, and young (16-week-old) and old (2-year-old) normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats (SD-16w and SD-2y, respectively) using monoclonal antibodies against rat macrophages (ED2). The staining was visualized with fluorescein-labeled second antibodies. The ED2-specific staining in brain sections was restricted to macrophages in a perivascular location. The number of perivascular cells per square millimeter of high-power field was significantly greater in SHR-SP (8.6 +/- 2.1; n = 4) and SHR (6.7 +/- 0.9; n = 6) than in normotensive WKY (4.0 +/- 0.5; n = 6; p < 0.01). The number of perivascular macrophages was also greater in SD-2y (7.5 +/- 2.7; n = 9) than in SD-16w (2.9 +/- 1.8; n = 8; p < 0.01). No ED2 staining was found in the resident microglia or in the endothelial cells, which were identified by double staining with rhodamine-labeled anti-factor VIII-related antigen antibodies. The results suggest that the stroke risk factors hypertension and advanced age are associated with increased subendothelial accumulation of monocytes and macrophages. This accumulation could increase the tendency for the endothelium to convert from an anticoagulant to a procoagulant surface in response to mediators released from these subendothelial cells.

Similar Articles

Ischemic stroke subtypes: a population-based study of incidence and risk factors

Author(s): Petty GW, Brown RD Jr, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, O'Fallon WM, et al.

Ischemic stroke subtypes : a population-based study of functional outcome, survival, and recurrence

Author(s): Petty GW, Brown RD Jr, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, O'Fallon WM, et al.

Thrombolysis with alteplase 3 to 4

Author(s): Hacke W, Kaste M, Bluhmki E, Brozman M, Dávalos A, et al.

The science of stroke: mechanisms in search of treatments

Author(s): Moskowitz MA, Lo EH, Iadecola C

von Willebrand factor: an emerging target in stroke therapy

Author(s): De Meyer SF, Stoll G, Wagner DD, Kleinschnitz C

Platelets adhere to and translocate on von Willebrand factor presented by endothelium in stimulated veins

Author(s): André P, Denis CV, Ware J, Saffaripour S, Hynes RO, et al.

Shear-dependent changes in the three-dimensional structure of human von Willebrand factor

Author(s): Siedlecki CA, Lestini BJ, Kottke-Marchant KK, Eppell SJ, Wilson DL, et al.

Deficiency of von Willebrand factor protects mice from ischemic stroke

Author(s): Kleinschnitz C, De Meyer SF, Schwarz T, Austinat M, Vanhoorelbeke K, et al.

Tissue plasminogen activator reduces neurological damage after cerebral embolism

Author(s): Zivin JA, Fisher M, DeGirolami U, Hemenway CC, Stashak JA

Tissue plasminogen activator

Author(s): Zivin JA, Lyden PD, DeGirolami U, Kochhar A, Mazzarella V, et al.

Quantal bioassay and stroke

Author(s): Zivin JA, Waud DR

Neuroprotective effects of anesthetic agents

Author(s): Kawaguchi M, Furuya H, Patel PM