The ABC of the blood-brain barrier - regulation of drug efflux pumps

Author(s): Mahringer A, Ott M, Reimold I, Reichel V, Fricker G

Abstract

According to the World Health Organization Central nervous system disorders are the major medical challenge of the 21st Century, yet treatments for many CNS disorders are either inadequate or absent. One reason is the existence of the blood-brain barrier, which strictly limits the access of substances to the brain. A key element of the barrier function is the expression of ABC export proteins in the luminal membrane of brain microvessel endothelial cells. Understanding the signaling cascades and the response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli, which lead to altered expression or function of the transporters as well as subsequent modulation of the transporters, may offer novel strategies to overcome the barrier and to improve drug delivery to the brain. This review gives a short overview about structure of the key elements of the blood-brain barrier with emphasis on ABC transporters. An insight into regulation of function and expression of these transport proteins is given and the involvement of these transporters in CNS diseases is discussed.

Similar Articles

Neuroprotective activities of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Reynolds AD, Banerjee R, Liu J, Gendelman HE, Mosley RL

Alterations of T-lymphocyte populations in Parkinson disease

Author(s): Baba Y, Kuroiwa A, Uitti RJ, Wszolek ZK, Yamada T

Lymphocyte populations in Parkinson's disease and in rat models of parkinsonism

Author(s): Bas J, Calopa M, Mestre M, Molleví DG, Cutillas B, et al.

Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in Parkinson patients

Author(s): Calopa M, Bas J, Callén A, Mestre M

Blood-brain barrier leakage may lead to progression of temporal lobe epilepsy

Author(s): van Vliet EA, da Costa Araújo S, Redeker S, van Schaik R, Aronica E, et al.

Blood-brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Minagar A, Alexander JS

The role of neuroinflammation on the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Chung YC, Ko HW, Bok E, Park ES, Huh SH, et al.

Decreased blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in the progression of Parkinson's disease, PSP and MSA

Author(s): Bartels AL, Willemsen AT, Kortekaas R, de Jong BM, de Vries R, et al.

Attenuation of AD-like neuropathology by harnessing peripheral immune cells: local elevation of IL-10 and MMP-9

Author(s): Koronyo-Hamaoui M, Ko MK, Koronyo Y, Azoulay D, Seksenyan A, et al.

Proteomic studies of nitrated alpha-synuclein microglia regulation by CD4+CD25+ T cells

Author(s): Reynolds AD, Stone DK, Mosley RL, Gendelman HE

Leptin and ghrelin concentrations and weight loss in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Fiszer U, Michałowska M, Baranowska B, Wolińska-Witort E, Jeske W, et al.

Innate and adaptive immunity for the pathobiology of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Stone DK, Reynolds AD, Mosley RL, Gendelman HE

Immunoprotection against toxic biomarkers is retained during Parkinson's disease progression

Author(s): Gruden MA, Sewell RD, Yanamandra K, Davidova TV, Kucheryanu VG, et al.

Anti-melanin antibodies are increased in sera in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Double KL, Rowe DB, Carew-Jones FM, Hayes M, Chan DK, et al.

Effects of alpha-synuclein immunization in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Masliah E, Rockenstein E, Adame A, Alford M, Crews L, et al.

Human interleukin-10 gene transfer is protective in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Johnston LC, Su X, Maguire-Zeiss K, Horovitz K, Ankoudinova I, et al.

α-Synuclein and dopamine at the crossroads of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Venda LL, Cragg SJ, Buchman VL, Wade-Martins R

Immunocytochemical analysis of tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Boka G, Anglade P, Wallach D, Javoy-Agid F, Agid Y, et al.

T-cells in Alzheimer's disease

Author(s): Town T, Tan J, Flavell RA, Mullan M