The role of neuroinflammation on the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Chung YC, Ko HW, Bok E, Park ES, Huh SH, et al.

Abstract

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Although the causative factors of PD remain elusive, many studies on PD animal models or humans suggest that glial activation along with neuroinflammatory processes contribute to the initiation or progression of PD. Additionally, several groups have proposed that dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) combined with infiltration of peripheral immune cells play important roles in the degeneration of DA neurons. However, these neuroinflammatory events have only been investigated separately, and the issue of whether these phenomena are neuroprotective or neurotoxic remains controversial. We here review the current knowledge regarding the functions of these neuroinflammatory processes in the brain. Finally, we describe therapeutic strategies for the regulation of neuroinflammation with the goal of improving the symptoms of PD.

Similar Articles

Neuroprotective activities of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Reynolds AD, Banerjee R, Liu J, Gendelman HE, Mosley RL

Alterations of T-lymphocyte populations in Parkinson disease

Author(s): Baba Y, Kuroiwa A, Uitti RJ, Wszolek ZK, Yamada T

Lymphocyte populations in Parkinson's disease and in rat models of parkinsonism

Author(s): Bas J, Calopa M, Mestre M, Molleví DG, Cutillas B, et al.

Apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in Parkinson patients

Author(s): Calopa M, Bas J, Callén A, Mestre M

The ABC of the blood-brain barrier - regulation of drug efflux pumps

Author(s): Mahringer A, Ott M, Reimold I, Reichel V, Fricker G

Blood-brain barrier leakage may lead to progression of temporal lobe epilepsy

Author(s): van Vliet EA, da Costa Araújo S, Redeker S, van Schaik R, Aronica E, et al.

Blood-brain barrier disruption in multiple sclerosis

Author(s): Minagar A, Alexander JS

Decreased blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function in the progression of Parkinson's disease, PSP and MSA

Author(s): Bartels AL, Willemsen AT, Kortekaas R, de Jong BM, de Vries R, et al.

Attenuation of AD-like neuropathology by harnessing peripheral immune cells: local elevation of IL-10 and MMP-9

Author(s): Koronyo-Hamaoui M, Ko MK, Koronyo Y, Azoulay D, Seksenyan A, et al.

Proteomic studies of nitrated alpha-synuclein microglia regulation by CD4+CD25+ T cells

Author(s): Reynolds AD, Stone DK, Mosley RL, Gendelman HE

Leptin and ghrelin concentrations and weight loss in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Fiszer U, Michałowska M, Baranowska B, Wolińska-Witort E, Jeske W, et al.

Innate and adaptive immunity for the pathobiology of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Stone DK, Reynolds AD, Mosley RL, Gendelman HE

Immunoprotection against toxic biomarkers is retained during Parkinson's disease progression

Author(s): Gruden MA, Sewell RD, Yanamandra K, Davidova TV, Kucheryanu VG, et al.

Anti-melanin antibodies are increased in sera in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Double KL, Rowe DB, Carew-Jones FM, Hayes M, Chan DK, et al.

Effects of alpha-synuclein immunization in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Masliah E, Rockenstein E, Adame A, Alford M, Crews L, et al.

Human interleukin-10 gene transfer is protective in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Johnston LC, Su X, Maguire-Zeiss K, Horovitz K, Ankoudinova I, et al.

α-Synuclein and dopamine at the crossroads of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Venda LL, Cragg SJ, Buchman VL, Wade-Martins R

Immunocytochemical analysis of tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Boka G, Anglade P, Wallach D, Javoy-Agid F, Agid Y, et al.

T-cells in Alzheimer's disease

Author(s): Town T, Tan J, Flavell RA, Mullan M