Author(s): Gabrielsen TM, Minge MA, Espelund M, Tooming-Klunderud A, Patil V, et al.
The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata.
Referred From: https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019132
Author(s): Hackett JD, Anderson DM, Erdner DL, Bhattacharya D
Author(s): Li C, Wang D, Dong H, Xie Z, Hong H
Author(s): Taylor FJ, Hoppenrath M, Saldarriaga JF
Author(s): Reinfelder JR
Author(s): Toulza E, Shin MS, Blanc G, Audic S, Laabir M, et al.
Author(s): Fraga S, Rodríguez F, Bravo I, Zapata M, Marañón E
Author(s): Davy SK, Allemand D, Weis VM
Author(s): Seong KA, Jeong HJ
Author(s): Jeong HJ, Yoo YD, Kim JS, Seong KA, Kang NS, et al.
Author(s): Starzak DE, Quinnell RG, Nitschke MR, Davy SK
Author(s): Berkelmans R, Van Oppen MJ
Author(s): Muller-Parker G, D’Elia CF, Cook CB
Author(s): Bayer T, Aranda M, Sunagawa S, Yum LK, DeSalvo MK, et al.
Author(s): Harii S, Yamamoto M, Hoegh-Guldberg O
Author(s): Wooldridge SA
Author(s): Pistocchi R, Pezzolesi L, Guerrini F, Vanucci S, Dell’Aversano C, et al.
Author(s): Anderson DM, Burkholder JM, Cochlan WP, Glibert PM, Gobler, et al.
Author(s): Vila M, Masó M
Author(s): Hall NS, Litaker RW, Fensin E, Adolf JE, Bowers HA, et al.
Author(s): Dagenais-Bellefeuille S, Morse D
Author(s): Granéli E, Vidyarathna NK, Funari, Cumaranatunga PRT, Scenati R
Author(s): Taş S, Okuş E
Author(s): Robin RS, Kanuri VV, Muduli PR, Mishra RK, Jaikumar M, et al.
Author(s): Kim DI, Matsuyama Y, Nagasoe S, Yamaguchi M, Yoon YH, et al.
Author(s): Grzebyk D, Schofield O, Vetriani C, Falkowski PG
Author(s): Anderson DM, Glibert PM, Burkholder JM
Author(s): Chinabut S, Somsiri T, Limsuwan C, Lewis S
Author(s): Bailey SA
Author(s): Takahashi CK, Lourenco NGGS, Lopes TF, Rall VLM, Lopes CAM
Author(s): Hallegraeff GM
Author(s): Scholin CA, Hallegraeff GM, Anderson DM
Author(s): Kon NF, Teng ST, Hii KS, Yek LH, Mujahid A, et al.
Author(s): Anderson DM, Alpermann TJ, Cembella AD, Collos Y, Masseret E, et al.
Author(s): Adam A, Mohammad-Noor N, Anton A, Saleh E, Saad S, et al.
Author(s): Campbel L, Olson RJ, Sosik HM, Abraham A, Henrichs DW, et al.
Author(s): Lim PT, Leaw CP, Usup G, Kobiyama A, Koike K, et al.
Author(s): Hackett JD, Wisecaver JH, Brosnahan ML, Kulis DM, Anderson DM, et al.
Author(s): Etheridge SM
Author(s): Cetinkaya F, Elal Mus T
Author(s): Faber S
Author(s): Lim HC, Teng ST, Leaw CP, Iwataki M, Lim PT
Author(s): Fukuyo Y, Kodama M, Omura T, Furuya K, Furio EF, et al.
Author(s): Gerssen A, Pol-Hofstad, IE, Poelman M, Mulder PP, Van den T, et al.
Author(s): Stevens M, Peigneur S, Tytgat J