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Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in Oreochromis niloticos following exposure to petroleum refinery and chromium processing plant effluents

Author(s): Çavas T, Ergene-Gozukara S

Abstract

The genotoxic effects of effluents from a petroleum refinery and a chromium processing plant were evaluated in Oreochromis niloticus (Pisces: Perciformes) using the micronucleus test. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10 and 20%, v/v) of the effluents for 3, 6 and 9 days. Micronucleus analyses were carried out on gill epithelial cells and peripheral blood erythrocytes. Nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, considered as genetic damage indicators, were also evaluated on erythrocytes. Cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 4 mg/L was used as a positive control. The results of this study showed that both effluents had genotoxic potential. On the other hand, the level of genetic damage induced by petroleum refinery effluent was considerably higher than that of chromium processing plant effluent. Our results further indicate that nuclear abnormalities other than micronuclei, such as blebbed and lobed nuclei, may also be used as indicators of genotoxic damage.

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