Recommended Conferences

International Conference on Climate Change Global Warming

Berlin, Germany
Related Subjects

Tentacles of Venom: Toxic Protein Convergence in the Kingdom Animalia

Author(s): Fry BG, Roelants K, Norman JA


The origin and evolution of venom in many animal orders remain controversial or almost entirely uninvestigated. Here we use cDNA studies of cephalopod posterior and anterior glands to reveal a single early origin of the associated secreted proteins. Protein types recoverd were CAP (CRISP, Antigen 5 [Ag5] and Pathogenesis-related [PR-1]), chitinase, peptidase S1, PLA2 (phospholipase A2), and six novel peptide types. CAP, chitinase, and PLA2 were each recovered from a single species (Hapalochlaena maculosa, Octopus kaurna, and Sepia latimanus, respectively), while peptidase S1 transcripts were found in large numbers in all three posterior gland libraries. In addition, peptidase S1 transcripts were recovered from the anterior gland of H. maculata. We compare their molecular evolution to that of related proteins found in invertebrate and vertebrate venoms, revealing striking similarities in the types of proteins selected for toxic mutation and thus shedding light on what makes a protein amenable for use as a toxin.

Similar Articles

Lethaia 28: 187-188

Author(s): Purnell MA (1995A) Large eyes and vision in conodonts

Conodonts and the first vertebrates

Author(s): Purnell MA, Aldridge RJ, Donoghue PCJ, Gabbott SE

Conodont anatomy, chordate phylogeny and vertebrate classification

Author(s): Donoghue PCJ, Purnell MA, Aldridge RJ

Hagfish predatory and slime defense mechanism

Author(s): Zintzen V, Roberts CD, Anderson NJ, Stewart AL, Struthers CD, et al.

A lamprey from the devonian period of South Africa

Author(s): Gess RW, Coates MI, Rubidge BS

The conodont animal

Author(s): Briggs DEG, Clarkson ENK, Aldridge RJ

A lamprey from the Cretaceous Jehol biota of China

Author(s): Chang M, Zhang J, Miao D

Mass extinctions and sea-level changes

Author(s): Hallam A, Wignall PB

Lamprey metamorphosis

Author(s): Manzon RG, Youson JH, Holmes JA