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The chemistry of the anoxic waters in the Framvaren Fjord, Norway

Author(s): Yao W, Millero FJ


In the summer of 1993, a number of chemical parameters (H2S, O2, pH, TA, TCO2, NH +4 , PO 3−4 , SiO2, Mn2+ and Fe2+) were measured in the Framvaren Fjord, a permanently super-anoxic fjord in southern Norway. The extremely steep gradient of sulfide near the interface suggests that other than downward flux of oxygen, three other possible oxidants, particulate manganese and iron oxides, phototrophic sulfur oxidation bacteria and horizontally transported oxygen account for the oxidation of the upward flux of H2S. Water intrusion through the sill accounts for the temperature inflection above the interface, which, together with internal waves (Stigerbrandt and Molvaer, 1988), may cause fluctuations of the depth of interface. Significant gradients of hydrographic properties and chemical species between 80–100 m suggest that there is a “second interface” at about 90 m that separates the deep and older bottom waters. A stoichiometric model is applied to examine the biogeochemical cycles of S, C, N and P in the Framvaren. High C:S, C:N and C:P ratios are found while the nutrients (N, P) have Redfield ratio. Based on the C:N:P ratio of 155:16:1 in organic matter, about 30% of sulfide produced by sulfate reduction is estimated to be removed by processes such as oxidation, formation of FeS2, degassing and incorporation into organic matter. The rates of oxidation of H2S by Mn and Fe oxides in the water near the interface were slightly faster than the observed values in the laboratory, probably due to the presence of bacteria.

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