Author(s): Leighton FA
Mortality of aquatic birds occurs regularly as a consequence of spills of petroleum oils. There are three different ways in which such oils can affect birds. (i) External contamination of feathers is the most common form of exposure, and the effect of oils on feathers is the single most devastating effect of oil on birds. Feathers absorb oil, become matted, and lose the critical properties of water repellency, insulation, and flight. Death results from combinations of hypothermia, starvation, and drowning. (ii) Avian embryos are highly sensitive to oil that contaminates the egg shell; amounts as little as 1–10 μL are lethal to embryos during the first half of incubation. (iii) Birds ingest oil when preening oiled plumage or ingesting oiled nutrients. At least three toxic effects of ingested oil are well documented: a nonspecific response as a stressor that is additive or synergistic with those of other stressors, impairments in reproduction ranging from lowered fertility to abandonment of reproductive effort, and severe oxidant damage to red blood cells. The effect of oil pollution on bird populations is very difficult to document and is likely to remain uncertain because of the many ecological factors that may occur in association with an oil-spill event.Key words: oil, petroleum, pollution, bird, toxicity, poison.
Referred From: http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/a93-008
Author(s): Joye SB
Author(s): Gros J, Nabi D, Würz B, Wick LY, Brussaard CP, et al.
Author(s): Reddy CM, Arey JS, Jeffrey SS, Sean PS, Karin LL, et al.
Author(s): Short JW, Irvine GV, Mann DH, Maselko JM, Pella JJ, et al.
Author(s): Schroot BM, Klaver GT, Schűttenhelm RTE
Author(s): Tarnecki JH, Patterson WF
Author(s): Whitehead A, Dubansky B, Bodinier C, Garcia TI, Miles S, et al.
Author(s): Haney JC, Geiger HJ, Short JW
Author(s): White HK, Hsing PY, Cho W, Shank TM, Cordes EE, et al.
Author(s): Almeda R, Baca S, Hyatt C, Buskey EJ
Author(s): Schwing PT, Romero IC, Brooks GR, Hastings DW, Larson RA, et al.
Author(s): Bñlum J, Borglin S, Chakraborty R, Fortney JL, Lamendella R, et al.
Author(s): Albers P
Author(s): National Research Council
Author(s): Gonzalez-Doncel M, Gonzalez L, Fernandez-Torija C, Navas JM, Tarazona JV
Author(s): Sørhus E, Incardona JP, Karlsen Ø, Linbo T, Sørensen L, et al.
Author(s): Sørhus E, Incardona JP, Furmanek T, Goetz GW, Scholz NL, et al.
Author(s): Sørensen L, Sørhus E, Nordtug T, Incardona JP, Linbo TL, et al.
Author(s): Bellas J, Saco-Alvarez L, Nieto O, Bayona JM, Albaiges J, et al.
Author(s): Hamdoun AM, Griffin FJ, Cherr GN
Author(s): Bellas J, Thor P
Author(s): Rasmuson LK
Author(s): Fodrie FJ, Able KW, Galvez F, Heck KL, Jensen OP, et al.
Author(s): Hicken CE, Linbo TL, Baldwin DH, Willis ML, Myers MS, et al.
Author(s): Langangen Ø, Olsen E, Stige LC, Ohlberger J, Yaragina NA, et al.
Author(s): Incardona JP, Gardner LD, Linbo TL, Brown TL, Esbaugh AJ, et al.
Author(s): Barron MG, Carls MG, Short JW, Rice SD, Heintz RA, et al.
Author(s): O’Hara PD, Morandin LA
Author(s): Balseiro A, Espí A, Márquez I, Pérez V, Ferreras MC, et al.
Author(s): Antonio FJ, Mendes RS, Thomaz SM
Author(s): Finch BE, Wooten KJ, Smith PN
Author(s): Carmichael RH, Graham WM, Aven A, Worthy G, Howden S
Author(s): Van Dolah FM, Neely MG, McGeorge LE, Balmer BC, Ylitalo GM, et al.
Author(s): Venn-Watson S, Colegrove KM, Litz J, Kinsel M, Terio K, et al.
Author(s): Drabeck DH, Chatﬁeld MWH, Richards-Zawacki CL
Author(s): Laguionie-Marchais C, Billett DSM, Paterson GLD, Ruhl HA, Soto EH, et al.
Author(s): Hart KM, Lamont MM, Sartain AR, Fujisaki I
Author(s): Montagna PA, Baguley JG, Cooksey C, Hartwell I, Hyde LJ
Author(s): McCay DPF, Manen CA, Gibson M, Catena J
Author(s): Culbertson JB, Valiela I, Peacock EE, Reddy CM, Carter A, et al.
Author(s): Kristensen E
Author(s): Krebs CT, Burns KA
Author(s): Dauvin JC
Author(s): Juanes JA, Puente A, revilla JA, Alvarez C, Garcia A, et al.
Author(s): Culbertson JB, Valiela I, Olsen YS, Reddy CM
Author(s): Hanman ML, Bamber SD, Galloway TS, Moody JA, Jones MB
Author(s): Banni M, Negri A, Dagnino A, Jebali J, Ameur S, et al.
Author(s): Croxton AN, Wikfors GH, Schulterbrandt-Gragg RD
Author(s): Jeong WG, Cho SM
Author(s): Barille-Boyer AL, Gruet Y, Barielle L, Harin N
Author(s): Joly-Turquin G, Dubois P, Coteur G, Danis B, Leyzour S, et al.
Author(s): Fukuyama AK, Shigenaka G, Hoff RZ
Author(s): Sander HL, JF Grassle, GR Hampson, LS Morse, S Garner-Price, et al.
Author(s): Elmgren R, Hansson S, Larsson U, Sundelin B, Boehm PD
Author(s): Kurylenko V, Izosimova O
Author(s): Grenvald JC, Nielsen TG, Hjorth M
Author(s): Anselmo HM, L Koerting, S Devito, JH van den Berg, M Dubbeldam, et al.
Author(s): Jiang Z, Huang Y, Chen Q, Zeng J, Xu X
Author(s): Corina PDB, Louis Peperzak, Beggah S, Wick LY, Wuerz B, et al.
Author(s): Kellie CP
Author(s): Molisani MM, Costa RN, Cunha P, de Rezende CE, Ferreira MIP, et al.