Eggplant latent viroid, the candidate type species for a new genus within the family Avsunviroidae (hammerhead viroids)

Author(s): Fadda Z, Daròs JA, Fagoaga C, Flores R, Duran-Vila N


Viroids, small circular RNAs that replicate independently and in most cases incite diseases in plants, are classified into the families Pospiviroidae, composed of species with a central conserved region (CCR) and without hammerhead ribozymes, and Avsunviroidae, composed of three members lacking CCR but able to self-cleave in both polarity strands through hammerhead ribozymes. Here we report the biological and molecular properties of Eggplant latent viroid (ELVd). Purified circular ELVd induces symptomless infections when inoculated into eggplant seedlings. ELVd can be transmitted horizontally and through seed. Sequencing 10 complete cDNA clones showed that ELVd is a circular RNA of 332 to 335 nucleotides with high variability. This RNA can adopt a quasi-rod-like secondary structure of minimal free energy and alternative foldings that permit formation of stable hammerhead structures in plus and minus strands. The ribozymes are active in vitro and, most likely, in vivo. Considering the ELVd properties to be intermediate between those of the two genera of family Avsunviroidae, we propose ELVd as the type species of a third genus with the name ELAVIROID:

Similar Articles

Potato spindle tuber "virus"

Author(s): Diener TO

Inhibition of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) infection with DNA oligonucleotides

Author(s): Matousek J, Trnena L, Arnold L, Dedic P, Rakousky S, et al.

Behavior of a hammerhead ribozyme in aqueous solution at medium to high temperatures

Author(s): El-Murr N, Maurel MC, Rihova M, Vergne J, Hervé G, et al.

The revised classification of eukaryotes

Author(s): Adl SM, Simpson AG, Lane CE, Lukes J, Bass D, et al.

Improving the coverage of the cyanobacterial phylum using diversity-driven genome sequencing

Author(s): Shih PM, Wu D, Latifi A, Axen SD, Fewer DP, et al.

Accurate strand-specific quantification of viral RNA

Author(s): Plaskon NE, Adelman ZN, Myles KM

Self-cleavage of plus and minus RNA transcripts of avocado sunblotch viroid

Author(s): Hutchins CJ, Rathjen PD, Forster AC, Symons RH