Recommended Conferences

Neuroscience Psychiatry

Dubai, UAE

2nd International Conference on Clinical Psychiatry

Miami, USA

Psychology and Mental Health

Chicago, USA
Related Subjects
 

Accuracy of defense interpretations in three character types

Author(s): Perry JC, Petraglia J, Olson TR, Presniak MD, Metzger JA

Abstract

Defense mechanisms are one of the most durable constructs in psychoanalysis and dynamic psychiatry/psychology, spanning theoretical, clinical, and research approaches. While the construct originated with Freud’s 1894 [1] publication, The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence, the first seven decades of psychoanalytic writing largely advanced the theoretical understanding and clinical approaches to defense mechanisms, while the research did not begin in earnest until about the last 40 years, accelerating somewhat more recently. Much of this research has understandably concentrated first on issues of how to assess defenses [2, 3], second, on the relationship of defenses to clinical disorders, such as depression [4] and personality disorders [5, 6], and, third, on change in defenses over time and long-term development [7]. In recent years, this latter avenue has expanded to include treatment outcome studies indicating that defenses and defensive functioning improve with treatment [4, 8–10]. To date, these have been naturalistic observational studies of patients in treatment and follow-up, but they have also begun to examine the role of defenses in the processes of change with psychotherapy. Kramer et al. [11] found that change in distress was mediated by prior improvement during psychotherapy of defensive functioning, but not of conscious coping. Perry and Bond [12] reported that change in defense mechanisms at 2.5 years of long-term dynamic psychotherapy predicted change in multiple measures of symptoms and functioning at 5 years. While we await additional research to establish that change in defenses mediates improvement in symptoms and functioning, it is important to explore and delineate therapeutic processes that lead to change in defenses. This chapter, then, is an effort to examine some early hypotheses and approaches to determining how therapeutic interventions lead to change in defensive functioning within and across psychotherapy sessions.

Similar Articles

Defense mechanisms, 136: Theoretical, research, and clinical perspectives

Author(s): Hentschel U, Smith G, Draguns JG, Ehlers W

The wisdom of the ego

Author(s): Vaillant GE

Early change in maladaptive defense style and development of the therapeutic alliance

Author(s): Ambresin G, de Roten Y, Drapeau M, Despland JN

Patient defense/therapist interventions

Author(s): Winston B, Winston A, Samstag LW, Muran JC

A guide to conducting consensual qualitative research

Author(s): Hill C, Thompson BJ, Nutt-Williams E

Consensual qualitative research: An update

Author(s): Hill C, Knox S, Thompson BJ, Williams EN, Hess SA, et al.

Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy for somatic disorders

Author(s): Abbass A, Kisely S, Kroenke K

Treating affect phobia: A manual for short-term dynamic psychotherapy

Author(s): McCullough L, Kuhn N, Andrews S, Kaplan A, Wolf J, et al.

Desensitization of conflicted feelings: Using the ATOS to measure early change in a single-case affect phobia therapy treatment

Author(s): Bhatia M, Gil Rodriguez M, Fowler DM, Godin JEG, Drapeau M, McCullough L

The effects of confrontation and clarification on patient affective and defensive responding

Author(s): Salerno M, Farber BA, McCullough L, Winston A, Trujillo M

How to address patients' defenses: A pilot study of the accuracy of defence interpretation and alliance

Author(s): Junod O, de Roten Y, Martinez E, Drapeau M, Despland JN

Interpretation in projection

Author(s): Quinodoz D