Recommended Conferences

Neuroscience Psychiatry

Dubai, UAE

2nd International Conference on Clinical Psychiatry

Miami, USA

Psychology and Mental Health

Chicago, USA
Related Subjects
 

Caffeine and the central nervous system: Mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects

Author(s): Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G

Abstract

Caffeine is the most widely consumed centralnervous-system stimulant. Three main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the central nervous system have been described. Mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of specific phosphodiesterases only occur at high non-physiological concentrations of caffeine. The only likely mechanism of action of the methylxanthine is the antagonism at the level of adenosine receptors. Caffeine increases energy metabolism throughout the brain but decreases at the same time cerebral blood flow, inducing a relative brain hypoperfusion. Caffeine activates noradrenaline neurons and seems to affect the local release of dopamine. Many of the alerting effects of caffeine may be related to the action of the methylxanthine on serotonine neurons. The methylxanthine induces dose-response increases in locomotor activity in animals. Its psychostimulant action on man is, however, often subtle and not very easy to detect. The effects of caffeine on learning, memory, performance and coordination are rather related to the methylxanthine action on arousal, vigilance and fatigue. Caffeine exerts obvious effects on anxiety and sleep which vary according to individual sensitivity to the methylxanthine. However, children in general do not appear more sensitive to methylxanthine effects than adults. The central nervous system does not seem to develop a great tolerance to the effects of caffeine although dependence and withdrawal symptoms are reported.

Similar Articles

The impact of coffee on health

Author(s): Cano-Marquina A, Tarín JJ, Cano A

Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man

Author(s): Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oateshttp JA

Caffeine consumption

Author(s): Barone JJ, Roberts HR

Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine

Author(s): Winston AP, Hardwick E, Jaberi N

Caffeine fatalities – four case reports

Author(s): Holmgren P, Nordén-Pettersson L, Ahlner J

Caffeine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease

Author(s): Rodopoulos N, Wisén O, Norman A

Assessment of risk involved in the combination medicine of paracetamol and caffeine

Author(s): Uddin MS, Wali MW, Mamun AA, Asaduzzaman M, Amran MS, et al.

Caffeine for the sustainment of mental task performance: Formulations for military operations

Author(s): Vanderveen JE, Armstrong LE, Butterfield GE, Chenoweth WL, Dwyer JT, et al.

Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance

Author(s): Parsons WD, Neims AH

Pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine in the premature newborn infant with apnea

Author(s): Aranda JV, Cook CE, Gorman W, Collinge JM, Loughnan PM, et al.

Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns

Author(s): Aranda JV, Sitar DS, Parsons WD, Loughnan PM, Neims AH

Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

Author(s): Coelho A, Fraichard S, Le Goff G, Faure P, Artur Y, Ferveur JF, Heydel JM

Effects of caffeine on visual monitoring

Author(s): Baker WJ, Theologus GC

Seizures and epilepsy after ischemic stroke

Author(s): Camilo O, Goldstein LB

Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid ß(1-42) levels in an Alzheimer's mouse model

Author(s): Chu YF, Chang WH, Black RM, Liu JR, Sompol P, et al.