Dose-response meta-analysis on coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with risk of Parkinson's disease

Author(s): Qi H, Li S



A dose–response meta-analysis was carried out between Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and coffee, tea and caffeine consumption.


A comprehensive search was carried out to identify eligible studies. The fixed or random effect model was used based on heterogeneity test. The dose–response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline.


A total of 13 articles involving 901 764 participants for coffee, eight articles involving 344 895 participants for tea and seven articles involving 492 724 participants for caffeine were included. A non-linear relationship was found between coffee consumption and PD risk overall, and the strength of protection reached the maximum at approximately 3 cups/day (smoking-adjusted relative risk: 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.65–0.81). A linear relationship was found between tea and caffeine consumption, and PD risk overall, and the smoking-adjusted risk of PD decreased by 26% and 17% for every two cups/day and 200 mg/day increments, respectively. The association of coffee and tea consumption with PD risk was stronger for men than that for women, and the association of caffeine consumption with PD risk was stronger for ever users of hormones than that for never users of hormones among postmenopausal women. The aforementioned associations were weaker for USA relative to Europe or Asia.


A linear dose-relationship for decreased PD risk with tea and caffeine consumption was found, whereas the strength of protection reached a maximum at approximately 3 cups/day for coffee consumption overall. Further studies are required to confirm the findings. 

Similar Articles

The impact of coffee on health

Author(s): Cano-Marquina A, Tarín JJ, Cano A

Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man

Author(s): Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oateshttp JA

Caffeine consumption

Author(s): Barone JJ, Roberts HR

Neuropsychiatric effects of caffeine

Author(s): Winston AP, Hardwick E, Jaberi N

Caffeine fatalities – four case reports

Author(s): Holmgren P, Nordén-Pettersson L, Ahlner J

Caffeine metabolism in patients with chronic liver disease

Author(s): Rodopoulos N, Wisén O, Norman A

Assessment of risk involved in the combination medicine of paracetamol and caffeine

Author(s): Uddin MS, Wali MW, Mamun AA, Asaduzzaman M, Amran MS, et al.

Caffeine for the sustainment of mental task performance: Formulations for military operations

Author(s): Vanderveen JE, Armstrong LE, Butterfield GE, Chenoweth WL, Dwyer JT, et al.

Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance

Author(s): Parsons WD, Neims AH

Pharmacokinetic profile of caffeine in the premature newborn infant with apnea

Author(s): Aranda JV, Cook CE, Gorman W, Collinge JM, Loughnan PM, et al.

Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns

Author(s): Aranda JV, Sitar DS, Parsons WD, Loughnan PM, Neims AH

Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

Author(s): Coelho A, Fraichard S, Le Goff G, Faure P, Artur Y, Ferveur JF, Heydel JM

Effects of caffeine on visual monitoring

Author(s): Baker WJ, Theologus GC

Seizures and epilepsy after ischemic stroke

Author(s): Camilo O, Goldstein LB

Crude caffeine reduces memory impairment and amyloid ß(1-42) levels in an Alzheimer's mouse model

Author(s): Chu YF, Chang WH, Black RM, Liu JR, Sompol P, et al.