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Neurological manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus in children and adults

Author(s): Muscal E, Brey RL

Abstract

Among the collagen vascular diseases neurologic manifestations have been most commonly recognized and well-studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, lupus). Neurologic manifestations are less prevalent in other systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adults, an erosive and potentially deforming inflammatory arthritis, has been associated with peripheral neuropathy, brain stem and spinal cord compression caused by a mass effect from pannus formation in the vertebral joints, and stroke caused by premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. Sjogren syndrome, characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth, has been associated with hemispheric and spinal cord lesions that can mimic the clinical and neuroradiographic features of multiple sclerosis. Scleroderma, characterized by skin hardening and fibrosis, may lead to peripheral neuropathy and trigeminal neuralgia in its systemic form (systemic sclerosis). This review focuses on the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and treatment strategies of neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE) in children and adults.

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