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The association between types of music enjoyed and cognitive, behavioral, and personality factors of those who listen

Author(s): George D, Stickle K, Rachid F, Wopnford A

Abstract

A community sample of 358 individuals completed questionnaires that assessed preference for 30 different styles of music, a number of demographic variables, involvement with singing or playing an instrument and a number of personal variables including: intelligence, spirituality, self esteem, social skills, locus of control, conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion, openness, emotional stability, hostility, and depression. Factor analysis of the 30 music styles resulted in 8 factors: Rebellious (e.g., punk, grunge, heavy metal), Classical, Rhythmic & Intense (e.g., hip-hop & rap, pop, rhythm & blues), Easy Listening, Fringe (e.g., electronic, ambient, techno), Contemporary Christian, Jazz & Blues, and Traditional Christian. A series of correlations, partial correlations and regression analyses reveal an almost comprehensively negative personal profile for those who listen to the Rebellious and Rhythmic & Intense categories of music. Results further produce an almost comprehensively positive profile for those who listen to Classical music. Useful insight is also provided on the traditional versus contemporary Christian music controversy. Results are discussed and suggestions for future research provided.

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