Author(s): Pacek LR, Martins SS, Crum RM
Alcohol use disorders (AUD) and cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in the United States (US), and are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Co-occurring alcohol and cannabis use/use disorders (AUD+CUD), though understudied, have been found to be associated with greater adverse outcomes than alcohol or cannabis use/use disorders alone. There is a paucity of research on the co-occurring relationships of the two disorders with depression.Methods
Data came from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a population-based longitudinal survey of the adult non-institutionalized, civilian population in the US. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between: 1) baseline AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD with incident MDD at follow-up and 2) baseline MDD with incident AUD, CUD, and co-occurring AUD+CUD at follow-up, adjusted for potential confounding variables.Results
For Aim 1, most of the AUD and CUD were positively associated with MDD. The strongest associations with incident MDD were observed for cannabis dependence (OR=6.61, CI=1.67–26.21) and co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=2.34, CI=1.23–4.48). For Aim 2, baseline MDD was significantly associated with comparatively fewer cases of incident AUD and CUD but the strongest association was observed for new onset co-occurring alcohol and cannabis dependence (OR=4.51, CI=1.31–15.60).Limitations
The present study is limited by the potential for social desirability and recall biases.Discussion
Positive associations between AUD, CUD and MDD were observed bidirectionally. Findings have implications for preventive and treatment programs and initiatives.
Author(s): Mudasir M
Author(s): Tahira S, Bilal B, Nuarat, Farooz W
Author(s): Braida D, Liminta V, Malabarba L, Zani A, Sala M
Author(s): Witkin JM, Tzavara ET, Nomikos GG
Author(s): James A, James C, Thwaites T
Author(s): Hall W, Degenhardt L
Author(s): Kumra S, Robinson P, Tambyraja R, Jensen D, Schimunek C, et al.
Author(s): Di Forti M, Sallis H, Allegri F, Trotta A, Ferraro L, et al.
Author(s): Di Forti M, Marconi A, Carra E, Fraietta S, Trotta A, et al.
Author(s): Myles H, Myles N, Large M
Author(s): Gabrilla G
Author(s): Martinotti G, Di Iorio G, Tedeschi D, De Berardis D, Niolu C, et al.
Author(s): Agosti V, Nunes E, Levin F
Author(s): Goldstein S
Author(s): Grov C, Kelly BC, Parsons JT
Author(s): Swift W, Hall W, Teesson M
Author(s): Degenhardt L, Hall W
Author(s): Manrique-Garcia E, Zammit S, Dalman C, Hemmingsson T, Allebeck P
Author(s): Lynskey MT, Heath AC, Bucholz KK, Slutske WS, Madden PA, et al.
Author(s): Grant JD, Lynskey MT, Scherrer JF, Agrawal A, Heath AC, et al.
Author(s): Lynskey MT, Vink JM, Boomsma DI
Author(s): Moore THN, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A, Barnes TRE, Jones PB
Author(s): McGrath J, Welham J, Scott J, Varghese D, Degenhardt L, et al.
Author(s): Giordano GN, Ohlsson H, Sundquist K, Sunquist J, Kendler K
Author(s): Power RA, Verweij KJH, Zuhair M, Montgomery GW, Henders AK, et al.
Author(s): Borges G, Bagge CL, Orozco R
Author(s): Wittchen H, Frohlich C, Behrendt S
Author(s): Smith MJ, Barch DM, Wolf TJ, Mamah D, Csernansky JG
Author(s): Lev-Ran S, Roerecke M, Le Foll B, George TP, McKenzie K, et al.
Author(s): Pedersen W
Author(s): Durdle H, Lundahl LH, Johanson CE, Tancer M
Author(s): Bottorff JL1, Johnson JL, Moffat BM, Mulvogue T
Author(s): Nail RL, Gunderson EK, Kolb D
Author(s): Ledoux S, Miller P, Choquet M, Plant M
Author(s): Van den Bree, Marianne BM, Wallace BP
Author(s): Kalant H
Author(s): Georgiades K, Boyle MH
Author(s): Dorard G, Berthoz S, Phan O, Corcos M, Bungener C
Author(s): Field T, Diego M, Sanders C
Author(s): Fleming CB, Mason WA, Mazza JJ, Abbott RD, Catalano RF
Author(s): Barnwell SS, Earleywine M, Wilcox R
Author(s): Baethge C, Hennen J, Khalsa HM, Salvatore P, Tohen M, et al.
Author(s): Volkow ND, Baler RD, Compton WM, Weiss SR