Author(s): Cai Y, Sun M, Corke H
Antioxidant activity of betalain pigments (seven pure compounds and four combined fractions) from plants of the family Amaranthaceae was evaluated using the modified DPPH(*) (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) method. All tested betalains exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Their EC(50) values ranged from 3.4 to 8.4 microM. Gomphrenin type betacyanins (mean = 3.7 microM) and betaxanthins (mean = 4.2 microM) demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity, 3-4-fold stronger than ascorbic acid (13.9 microM) and also stronger than rutin (6.1 microM) and catechin (7.2 microM). Antioxidant activity of the tested betalains decreased in the following order: simple gomphrenins > acylated gomphrenins > dopamine-betaxanthin > (S)-tryptophan-betaxanthin > 3-methoxytyramine-betaxanthin > betanin/isobetanin > celosianins > iresinins > amaranthine/isoamaranthine. This study also investigated and discussed the relationship between the chemical structure and the activity of the betalains. The free radical scavenging activity of the betalains usually increased with the numbers of hydroxyl/imino groups and, moreover, depended on the position of hydroxyl groups and glycosylation of aglycones in the betalain molecules.
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670172
Author(s): Wang P, Li S, Ownby S, Zhang Z, Yuan W, et al.
Author(s): Salvador MJ, Ferreira EO, Mertens-Talcott SU, De Castro WV, Butterweck V, et al.
Author(s): Li H, Deng Z, Liu R, Zhu H, Draves J, et al.
Author(s): Liu H, Cao J, Jiang W
Author(s): Souza JG, Tomei RR, Kanashiro A, Kabeya LM, Azzolini AECS, et al.
Author(s): Kumar G, Karthik L, Rao KV
Author(s): Ranju P, Kundlik G, Hitesh G, Thirumoorthy N
Author(s): Biella CA, Salvador MJ, Dias DA, Dias-Baruffi M, Crotti LSP
Author(s): Teixeira CGL, Piccoli A, Costa P, Soares L, Da Silva-Santos JE
Author(s): Freitas CS, Baggio CH, Da Silva-Santos JE, Rieck L, de Moraes Santos CA, et al.
Author(s): Sanoko R, Esperanza G, Pizza C, De Tommasi N
Author(s): Harbone JB
Author(s): Piccinelli AL, De Simone F, Passi S, Rastrelli L
Author(s): Cuendet M, Hostettman K, Potterat O, Dyatmko W
Author(s): Huang D, Ou B, Prior RL
Author(s): Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Prior RL
Author(s): Salvador MJ, de Lourenço CC, Andreazza NL, Pascoal AC, Stefanello ME
Author(s): Ye M, Han J, Chen H, Zheng J, Guo D
Author(s): Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, McMahon J, et al.
Author(s): Pietta PG
Author(s): Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G
Author(s): Soares SE
Author(s): Zocoler AMD, Sanches ACC, Albrecht I, Mello JCP
Author(s): Custodio L, Fernandes E, Escapa AL, Fajardo A, Aligue R, et al.
Author(s): Salvador MJ, Andreazza NL, Pascoal ACRF, Pereira PS, França SC, et al.
Author(s): Carneiro CS, Costa-Pinto FA, da Silva AP, Pinello KC, da Silva TC, et al.
Author(s): Rao YK, Geethangili M, Fang SH, Tzeng YM
Author(s): Choi HJ, Eun JS, Kim BG, Kim SY, Jeon H, et al.
Author(s): Zhou Y, Liu YE, Cao J, Zeng G, Shen C, et al.