The universal average difference is around four years and 11 years in advanced countries. The report suggests that there is room for improvement in female chances of survival in Arab states. The World Health Organisation (WHO) disability-adjusted index on expectation of life at birth shows that a close of a third of Arab countries lose more than nine years of life expectancy to disability. Disability at birth tends to be higher in females than in males.
Author(s): Sesardic D, Prior C, Daas A, Buchheit KH; National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, Hertfordshire,
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Author(s): Shah VP, Tsong Y, Sathe P, Liu JP
Author(s): Shah SU, Shah KU, Rehman A, Khan GM
Author(s): Ashour S, Al-Khalil R
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Author(s): Bundrick W, Heron SP, Ray P, Schiff WM, Tennenberg AM, et al.