Long lasting protection against canine kala-azar using the FML-QuilA saponin vaccine in an endemic area of Brazil (São Gonçalo do Amarante, RN)

Author(s): Borja GPC, Correia NNP, Silva VOD, Paraguai SED, Santos WR, et al.


Naturally exposed dogs of an endemic area were vaccinated with the fucose mannose ligand (FML) antigen of Leishmania donovani in formulation with QuilA saponin. The 100% of vaccinees were seropositive to FML and showed intradermal reaction to L. donovani lysate, 2 months after vaccination. The absorbency values and size of intradermal reaction were both significantly higher in vaccinees than in controls along a 3.5 years period (ANOVA, P<0.0001). The 25% of the control animals (two dogs on the first year and six dogs on the fourth year, respectively) and 5% of the vaccinees (one dog during the fourth year) developed clinical and fatal disease until the end of experiment. This difference was significant (chi(2)=3.93, P<0.05). This means that 95% protection against kala-azar was achieved in vaccinees, after FML-QuilA vaccination (80% of vaccine efficacy (VE)). Leishmania infection was also confirmed, 3.5 years after vaccination, in saline controls that showed positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania DNA and FML-serology with no intradermal reaction. Higher seropositivities and intradermal reactions with no Leishmanial DNA were detected in vaccinees. The FML-QuilA vaccine induced a significant, long lasting and strong protective effect against canine kala-azar in the field.

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