Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism by ginseng

Author(s): Yoon M, Lee H, Jeong S, Kim JJ, Nicol CJ, et al.


1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates the expression of the key genes involved in lipid metabolism following activation of this receptor by various ligands. Ginseng, a highly valuable medicine in oriental societies, is also reported to modulate lipid metabolism, although the mechanism of its action remains unknown. In order to test our hypothesis that ginseng exerts its effects by altering PPARalpha-mediated pathways, the effects of Korean red ginseng on PPARalpha function and serum lipid profiles were investigated using in vivo and in vitro approaches. 2. In vivo administration of ginseng extract (GE) and ginsenosides (GS) not only inhibited mRNA levels of acyl-CoA oxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme for PPARalpha-mediated peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation, induced by the potent PPARalpha ligand Wy14,643 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but also inhibited the induction of PPARalpha target genes expected following treatment with Wy14,643. 3. Consistent with the in vivo data, both GE and GS caused dose-dependent decreases in the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing the PPAR responsive element (PPRE), while GS significantly decreased the magnitude of reporter gene activation in the presence of Wy14,643. 4. Serological studies demonstrated that, compared with vehicle-treated mice, treatment with GS significantly increased serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Compared to groups treated with Wy14,643 alone, which significantly decreased serum triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels versus controls, coadministration of either GE or GS with Wy14,643 modestly increased serum triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. 5. These results indicate that the effects of ginseng on serum lipid profiles may be mediated by changes in the expression of PPARalpha target genes, providing the first evidence that in vivo and in vitro treatments of ginseng modulate PPARalpha action. In addition, these data suggest that ginseng can act as an inhibitor of PPARalpha function, which may have therapeutic implications.

Similar Articles

Triglyceride accumulation protects against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity

Author(s): Listenberger LL, Han X, Lewis SE, Cases S, Farese RV Jr, et al.

Remodeling of lipid droplets during lipolysis and growth in adipocytes

Author(s): Paar M, Jüngst C, Steiner NA, Magnes C, Sinner F, et al.

Activation of PPARγ and δ by dietary punicic acid ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice

Author(s): Bassaganya-Riera J, DiGuardo M, Climent M, Vives C, Carbo A, et al.

Pomegranate: a fruit that ameliorates metabolic syndrome

Author(s): Medjakovic S, Jungbauer A

Antiobesity effects of wild ginseng (Panax ginseng C

Author(s): Mollah ML, Kim GS, Moon HK, Chung SK, Cheon YP, et al.

Antiobesity effect of oil extract of ginseng

Author(s): Kim HJ, Kang HJ, Seo JY, Lee CH, Kim YS, et al.

Activating effect of momordin, extract of bitter melon (Momordica Charantia L

Author(s): Sasa M, Inoue I, Shinoda Y, Takahashi S, Seo M, et al.

Hypoglycemic effects of crude polysaccharide from Purslane

Author(s): Gong F, Li F, Zhang L, Li J, Zhang Z, et al.

Effects of Portulaca oleracea L

Author(s): El-Sayed M

Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

Author(s): P S, Zinjarde SS, Bhargava SY, Kumar AR

Cinnamon in glycaemic control: Systematic review and meta analysis

Author(s): Akilen R, Tsiami A, Devendra D, Robinson N

Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters

Author(s): Baker WL, Gutierrez-Williams G, White CM, Kluger J, Coleman CI

Cinnamon for diabetes mellitus

Author(s): Leach MJ, Kumar S

Postlipolytic insulin-dependent remodeling of micro lipid droplets in adipocytes

Author(s): Ariotti N, Murphy S, Hamilton NA, Wu L, Green K, et al.

Fat-specific protein 27 regulates storage of triacylglycerol

Author(s): Keller P, Petrie JT, De Rose P, Gerin I, Wright WS, et al.

Fat-specific protein 27, a novel lipid droplet protein that enhances triglyceride storage

Author(s): Puri V, Konda S, Ranjit S, Aouadi M, Chawla A, et al.

Pomegranate seed oil, a rich source of punicic acid, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice

Author(s): Vroegrijk IO, van Diepen JA, van den Berg S, Westbroek I, Keizer H, et al.