Author(s): Middleton E Jr, Kandaswami C, Theoharides TC
Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11121513
Author(s): Rates SM
Author(s): Stevenson DE, Hurst RD
Author(s): Kandaswami C, Middleton E Jr
Author(s): Kandaswami C, Perkins E, Drzewiecki G, Soloniuk DS, Middleton E Jr
Author(s): Ibraheim ZZ, Abdel-Mageed WM, Dai H, Guo H, Zhang L, et al.
Author(s): Macho A, Blanco-Molina M, Spagliardi P, Appendino G, Bremner P, et al.
Author(s): Colman-Saizarbitoria T, Boutros P, Amesty A, Bahsas A, Mathison Y, et al.
Author(s): Zamaraeva M, Charishnikova O, Saidkhodjaev A, Isidorov V, Granosik M, et al.
Author(s): Abourashed EA, Galal AM, El-Feraly FS, Khan IA
Author(s): Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S
Author(s): Abdel-Fattah AM, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H
Author(s): Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR
Author(s): Worthen DR, Ghosheh OA, Crooks PA
Author(s): Wie MB, Won MH, Lee KH, Shin JH, Lee JC, et al.
Author(s): Irie Y, Itokazu N, Anjiki N, Ishige A, Watanabe K, et al.
Author(s): Surh YJ, Park KK, Chun KS, Lee LJ, Lee E, et al.
Author(s): Ali BH, Blunden G, Tanira MO, Nemmar A
Author(s): Raafat K, Breitinger U, Mahran L, Ayoub N, Breitinger HG
Author(s): Raafat KM, Jassar H, Aboul-Ela M, El-Lakany A
Author(s): Lynch JW
Author(s): Betz H, Kuhse J, Fischer M, Schmieden V, Laube B, et al.
Author(s): Breitinger HG, Becker CM
Author(s): Legendre P
Author(s): Lynch JW
Author(s): Becker L, von Wegerer J, Schenkel J, Zeilhofer HU, Swandulla D, et al.
Author(s): Chindo BA, Anuka JA, McNeil L, Yaro AH, Adamu SS, et al.
Author(s): Lambert DM, Poupaert JH, Maloteaux JM, Dumont P
Author(s): Bloomenthal AB, Goldwater E, Pritchett DB, Harrison NL