Author(s): Sreeja S, Babu PRS, Prathab AG
Background: Enterococci form a part of the normal flora of the intestinal tract, the oral cavity, and the vagina, but in recent times, they have become emerging nosocomial pathogens. Their increasing importance is largely due to their resistance to antimicrobials. The therapeutic failures in enterococcal infections are mainly due to the intrinsic as well as transferable drug resistance. The main aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the Enterococcus infection and to determine the antibiogram in a tertiary care hospital.
Method: Enterococcus was isolated from a total of 5555 clinical samples like urine , pus, tissue, blood and body fluids during the period from January to December 2008. The isolates were speciated by using conventional biochemical tests (Facklam and Collins). The antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Confirmation of vancomycin susceptibility was done by the Epsilometer test (E test) to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC).
Result: From various clinical samples, 128 Enterococcus species were isolated in a period of one year and the rate of the infection was estimated to be 2.3%. Among the isolates, those of Enterococcus faecalis (E.faecalis) were 97(76%) and the remaining 31(24%) were of Enterococcus faecium (E.faecium). The maximum number of isolates were from pus 55(43%), followed by the isolates from urine 40(31%). The sensitivity pattern of these isolates showed an increased resistance to penicillin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. A High Level of Gentamicin Resistance (HLGR) was present in 60 (47% ) isolates of Enterococcus and 35(27%) isolates were intermediately sensitive to vancomycin by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. All the intermediately sensitive isolates to vancomycin were further tested by the E test and they were found to be vancomycin sensitive.
Conclusion: Various studies have shown an increase in the rate of infection and the antibiotic resistance in the Enterococcus species. There is also a change in the pattern of the Enterococcus infection, with an increase in the isolation rate of E. faecium and other non faecalis Enterococcus species. The Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method is not an accurate method for detecting the Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE).
Referred From: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23285436
Author(s): Ramalingam K, Amaechi BT, Ralph RH, Lee VA
Author(s): Fukushima T, Iwao H, Nakazima A, Miki M, Sakai T, et al.
Author(s): Rokadiya S, Malden NJ
Author(s): Dessì A, Crisafulli M, Accossu S, Setzu V, Fanos V
Author(s): Santos FA, Bastos EM, Rodrigues PH, Uzeda M, Carvalho MAR, et al.
Author(s): Rams TE, Degener JE, van Winkelhoff AJ
Author(s): Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM
Author(s): Maekawa LE, Valera MC, Oliveira LD, Carvalho CA, Camargo CH, et al.
Author(s): Bonifácio BV, Silva PB, Ramos MA, Negri KM, Bauab TM, et al.
Author(s): Santos VR, Gomes RT, de Mesquita RA, de Moura MD, França EC, et al.
Author(s): Pereira EM, da Silva JL, Silva FF, De Luca MP, Ferreira EF, et al.
Author(s): Gomaa OM, Gaweesh AS
Author(s): Banskota AH, Tezuka Y, Kadota S
Author(s): Dornelas CA, Fechine-Jamacaru FV, Albuquerque IL, Magalhães HI, Dias TA, et al.
Author(s): Machado JL, Assunção AK, da Silva MC, Dos Reis AS, Costa GC, et al.
Author(s): de Oliveira PF, Leandro LF, Montanheiro G, Bastos JK, da Silva Filho AA, et al.
Author(s): Oliveira GA, Ferraz ER, Souza AO, Lourenço RA, Oliveira DP, et al.
Author(s): Righi AA, Alves TR, Negri G, Marques LM, Breyer H, et al.
Author(s): Teixeira EW, Negri G, Meira RM, Message D, Salatino A
Author(s): de Almeida EB, Cordeiro Cardoso J, Karla de Lima A, de Oliveira NL, de Pontes-Filho NT, et al.
Author(s): Sharaf S, Higazy A, Hebeish A
Author(s): Santos VR
Author(s): Park YK, Alencar SM, Aguiar CL
Author(s): Batista LL, Campesatto EA, Assis ML, Barbosa AP, Grillo LA, et al.
Author(s): Marcucci MC
Author(s): Gazzani G, Daglia M, Papetti A
Author(s): Santos VR, Pimenta FJ, Aguiar MC, do Carmo MA, Naves MD, et al.
Author(s): Samet N, Laurent C, Susarla SM, Samet-Rubinsteen N
Author(s): Jebahi S, Oudadesse H, Jardak N, Khayat I, Keskes H, et al.
Author(s): Rivadeneira J, Carina Audisio M, Boccaccini AR, Gorustovich AA
Author(s): Wei QW, Dong YM, Chen XF, Li YL, Miao GH
Author(s): Kaczmarek M, Jurczyk MU, Rubis B, Banaszak A, Kolecka A, et al.
Author(s): Andrade AL, Manzi D, Domingues RZ
Author(s): Alencar SM, Oldoni TL, Castro ML, Cabral IS, Costa-Neto CM, et al.
Author(s): Daugsch A, Moraes CS, Fort P, Park YK
Author(s): Trusheva B, Popova M, Bankova V, Simova S, Marcucci MC, et al.
Author(s): Miorin PL, Levy Junior NC, Custodio AR
Author(s): Ayres DC, Marcucci MC, Giorgio S
Author(s): Park YK, Koo MH, Abreu JA, Ikegaki M, Cury JA, et al.
Author(s): Leitão DP, Filho AA, Polizello AC, Bastos JK, Spadaro AC
Author(s): Ferreira SBS, Assis Dias BR, Obregón CS, Gomes CC, de Araujo Pereira RR et al.
Author(s): Topcuoglu N, Ozan F, Ozyurt M, Kulekci G
Author(s): Ramos DBM, Gomes FS, Napoleão TH, Paiva PMG, Silva MDC, et al.
Author(s): Bueno-Silva B, Alencar SM, Koo H, Ikegaki M, Silva GV, et al.
Author(s): Libério SA, Pereira AL, Araújo MJ, Dutra RP, Nascimento FR, et al.
Author(s): Dziedzic A, Kubina R, Wojtyczka RD, KabaÅ‚a-Dzik A, Tanasiewicz M, et al.
Author(s): Jorgensen JH, Swenson JM, Tenover FC, Barry A, Ferraro MJ, et al.
Author(s): Gajan EB, Shirmohammadi A, Aghazadeh M, et al.
Author(s): Pondei K, Fente BG, Oladapo O
Author(s): Song XL, Sun YY, Liu Y, Chen Q, Bi XX, et al.
Author(s): Poptani B, Sharaff M, Archana G, Parekh V
Author(s): Cao WB, Su D, Chen YM, Zheng YZ, Zhang FK, et al.
Author(s): Olczak-Kowalczyk D, Daszkiewicz M, Krasuska-Slawinska, Dembowska-Baginska B, Gozdowski D, et al.
Author(s): Allan I, Newman H, Wilson M
Author(s): Krishnan V, Lakshmi T