Vaccine adjuvants revisited

Author(s): Aguilar JC, Rodríguez EG


The development of new adjuvants for human vaccines has become an expanding field of research in the last thirty years, for generating stronger vaccines capable of inducing protective and long-lasting immunity in humans. Instead of such efforts, with several adjuvant strategies approaching to requirements for their clinical application, limitations like adjuvant toxicity remain to be fully surpassed. Here we summarize the current status of adjuvant development, including regulatory recommendations, adjuvant requirements, and adjuvant categories like mineral salts, tensoactive compounds, microorganism-derived adjuvants, emulsions, cytokines, polysaccharides, nucleic acid-based adjuvants, and a section dedicated to particulate antigen delivery systems. The mechanisms of adjuvanticity are also discussed in the light of recent findings on Toll-like receptors' biology and their involvement on immune activation.

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