Endoscopic ultra-sonography diagnosis of subepithelial lesions

Author(s): Kida M, Kawaguchi Y, Miyata E, Hasegawa R, Kaneko T, et al.


Using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), it is practicable to diagnose subepithelial lesions (SEL) with originating layer, echo level, and internal echo pattern etc. Lipoma, lymphangioma, and cyst have characteristic features; therefore, there is no need for endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). Ectopic pancreas and glomus tumors, which originate from the third and fourth layers, are frequently seen in the antrum. However, ectopic pancreas located in the fundus or body is large and originates from the third and fourth layers (thickening of fourth layer). Each subepithelial lesion has characteristic findings. However, imaging differentiation of tumors originating from the fourth layer is very difficult, even if contrast echo is used. Therefore, EUS-FNA should be done in these tumors, but the diagnostic yield for small lesions is not sufficient for clinical demands. Generally, those tumors, including small ones, should be first followed up in 6 months, then yearly follow up in cases of no significant change in size and features. When those tumors become larger than 1–2 cm, EUS-FNA is recommended. Furthermore, unusual SEL and SEL with malignant findings such as nodular, heterogeneous, anechoic area, and ulceration indicate EUS-FNA. Cap-attached forward-viewing echoendoscope is very helpful for EUS-FNA of small SEL.

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