Cyclodextrin-based nanogels for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications

Author(s): Moya-Ortega MD, Alvarez-Lorenzo C, Concheiro A, Loftsson T

Abstract

Hydrophilic nanogels combine the advantages of hydrogels with certain advantages that are inherent in their nanoscale size. Similar to macrogels, nanogels can contain and protect drugs and regulate their release by incorporating high-affinity functional groups, stimuli-responsive conformations and biodegradable bonds into the polymer network. Similar to nanoparticles, nanogels can easily be administered in liquid form for parenteral drug delivery. The nanoscale size of nanogels gives them a high specific surface area that is available for further bioconjugation of active targeting agents. Biodistribution and drug release can be modulated through size adjustments. The incorporation of hydrophilic cyclodextrin (CD) moieties into the polymeric network of the nanogels provides them with a drug loading and release mechanism that is based on the formation of inclusion complexes without decreasing the hydrophilicity of the network. The covalent attachment of CD molecules to the chemically crosslinked networks may enable the CDs to display fully their ability to form complexes, while simultaneously preventing drug release upon media dilution. The preparation, characterization and advantages for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of CD-based nanogels are reviewed in this article.

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